UMR3244 – Dynamics of Genetic Information

Team Publications

Year of publication 2021

Shengjun Tan, Huijing Ma, Jinbo Wang, Man Wang, Mengxia Wang, Haodong Yin, Yaqiong Zhang, Xinying Zhang, Jieyu Shen, Danyang Wang, Graham L Banes, Zhihua Zhang, Jianmin Wu, Xun Huang, Hua Chen, Siqin Ge, Chun-Long Chen, Yong E Zhang (2021 Jul 14)

DNA transposons mediate duplications via transposition-independent and -dependent mechanisms in metazoans.

Nature communications : 4280 : DOI : 10.1038/s41467-021-24585-9 Learn more
Summary

Despite long being considered as “junk”, transposable elements (TEs) are now accepted as catalysts of evolution. One example is Mutator-like elements (MULEs, one type of terminal inverted repeat DNA TEs, or TIR TEs) capturing sequences as Pack-MULEs in plants. However, their origination mechanism remains perplexing, and whether TIR TEs mediate duplication in animals is almost unexplored. Here we identify 370 Pack-TIRs in 100 animal reference genomes and one Pack-TIR (Ssk-FB4) family in fly populations. We find that single-copy Pack-TIRs are mostly generated via transposition-independent gap filling, and multicopy Pack-TIRs are likely generated by transposition after replication fork switching. We show that a proportion of Pack-TIRs are transcribed and often form chimeras with hosts. We also find that Ssk-FB4s represent a young protein family, as supported by proteomics and signatures of positive selection. Thus, TIR TEs catalyze new gene structures and new genes in animals via both transposition-independent and -dependent mechanisms.

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Weitao Wang, Kyle N Klein, Karel Proesmans, Hongbo Yang, Claire Marchal, Xiaopeng Zhu, Tyler Borrman, Alex Hastie, Zhiping Weng, John Bechhoefer, Chun-Long Chen, David M Gilbert, Nicholas Rhind (2021 Jun 22)

Genome-wide mapping of human DNA replication by optical replication mapping supports a stochastic model of eukaryotic replication.

Molecular cell : DOI : S1097-2765(21)00408-1 Learn more
Summary

The heterogeneous nature of eukaryotic replication kinetics and the low efficiency of individual initiation sites make mapping the location and timing of replication initiation in human cells difficult. To address this challenge, we have developed optical replication mapping (ORM), a high-throughput single-molecule approach, and used it to map early-initiation events in human cells. The single-molecule nature of our data and a total of >2,500-fold coverage of the human genome on 27 million fibers averaging ∼300 kb in length allow us to identify initiation sites and their firing probability with high confidence. We find that the distribution of human replication initiation is consistent with inefficient, stochastic activation of heterogeneously distributed potential initiation complexes enriched in accessible chromatin. These observations are consistent with stochastic models of initiation-timing regulation and suggest that stochastic regulation of replication kinetics is a fundamental feature of eukaryotic replication, conserved from yeast to humans.

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Jingqi Dai, Aurore Sanchez, Céline Adam, Lepakshi Ranjha, Giordano Reginato, Pierre Chervy, Carine Tellier-Lebegue, Jessica Andreani, Raphaël Guérois, Virginie Ropars, Marie-Hélène Le Du, Laurent Maloisel, Emmanuelle Martini, Pierre Legrand, Aurélien Thureau, Petr Cejka, Valérie Borde, Jean-Baptiste Charbonnier (2021 Jun 5)

Molecular basis of the dual role of the Mlh1-Mlh3 endonuclease in MMR and in meiotic crossover formation.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America : DOI : e2022704118 Learn more
Summary

Méiose et réparation de l’ADN : les chercheurs décryptent l’activité d’un complexe moléculaire spécifique

In budding yeast, the MutL homolog heterodimer Mlh1-Mlh3 (MutLγ) plays a central role in the formation of meiotic crossovers. It is also involved in the repair of a subset of mismatches besides the main mismatch repair (MMR) endonuclease Mlh1-Pms1 (MutLα). The heterodimer interface and endonuclease sites of MutLγ and MutLα are located in their C-terminal domain (CTD). The molecular basis of MutLγ’s dual roles in MMR and meiosis is not known. To better understand the specificity of MutLγ, we characterized the crystal structure of MutLγ(CTD). Although MutLγ(CTD) presents overall similarities with MutLα(CTD), it harbors some rearrangement of the surface surrounding the active site, which indicates altered substrate preference. The last amino acids of Mlh1 participate in the Mlh3 endonuclease site as previously reported for Pms1. We characterized alleles and showed a critical role of this Mlh1 extreme C terminus both in MMR and in meiotic recombination. We showed that the MutLγ(CTD) preferentially binds Holliday junctions, contrary to MutLα(CTD). We characterized Mlh3 positions on the N-terminal domain (NTD) and CTD that could contribute to the positioning of the NTD close to the CTD in the context of the full-length MutLγ. Finally, crystal packing revealed an assembly of MutLγ(CTD) molecules in filament structures. Mutation at the corresponding interfaces reduced crossover formation, suggesting that these superstructures may contribute to the oligomer formation proposed for MutLγ. This study defines clear divergent features between the MutL homologs and identifies, at the molecular level, their specialization toward MMR or meiotic recombination functions.

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Samar Ali, Emilia Puig Lombardi, Deepanjan Ghosh, Tao Jia, Géraldine Vitry, Lina Saker, Joël Poupon, Marie-Paule Teulade-Fichou, Alain Nicolas, Arturo Londono-Vallejo, Sophie Bombard (2021 May 22)

Pt-ttpy, a G-quadruplex binding platinum complex, induces telomere dysfunction and G-rich regions DNA damage.

Metallomics : integrated biometal science : 13 : mfab029 : DOI : 10.1093/mtomcs/mfab029 Learn more
Summary

PMID-34021581

Pt-ttpy (tolyl terpyridin-Pt complex) covalently binds to G-quadruplex (G4) structures in vitro and to telomeres in cellulo via its Pt moiety. Here, we identified its targets in the human genome, in comparison to Pt-tpy, its derivative without G4 affinity, and cisplatin. Pt-ttpy, but not Pt-tpy, induces the release of the shelterin protein TRF2 from telomeres concomitantly to the formation of DNA damage foci at telomeres but also at other chromosomal locations. γ-H2AX chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) after treatment with Pt-ttpy or cisplatin revealed accumulation in G- and A-rich tandemly repeated sequences, but not particularly in potential G4 forming sequences. Collectively, Pt-ttpy presents dual targeting efficiency on DNA, by inducing telomere dysfunction and genomic DNA damage at specific loci.

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Julien Jarroux, Dominika Foretek, Claire Bertrand, Marc Gabriel, Ugo Szachnowski, Zohra Saci, Shuling Guo, Arturo Londoño-Vallejo, Marina Pinskaya, Antonin Morillon (2021 May 7)

HOTAIR lncRNA promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition by redistributing LSD1 at regulatory chromatin regions.

EMBO reports : e50193 : DOI : 10.15252/embr.202050193 Learn more
Summary

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes the loss of epithelial traits and gain of mesenchymal traits by normal cells during development and by neoplastic cells during cancer metastasis. The long noncoding RNA HOTAIR triggers EMT, in part by serving as a scaffold for PRC2 and thus promoting repressive histone H3K27 methylation. In addition to PRC2, HOTAIR interacts with the LSD1 lysine demethylase, an epigenetic regulator of cell fate during development and differentiation, but little is known about the role of LSD1 in HOTAIR function during EMT. Here, we show that HOTAIR requires its LSD1-interacting domain, but not its PRC2-interacting domain, to promote the migration of epithelial cells. This activity is suppressed by LSD1 overexpression. LSD1-HOTAIR interactions induce partial reprogramming of the epithelial transcriptome altering LSD1 distribution at promoter and enhancer regions. Thus, we uncover an unexpected role of HOTAIR in EMT as an LSD1 decommissioning factor, counteracting its activity in the control of epithelial identity.

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Marion Blin, Laurent Lacroix, Nataliya Petryk, Yan Jaszczyszyn, Chun-Long Chen, Olivier Hyrien, Benoît Le Tallec (2021 Apr 9)

DNA molecular combing-based replication fork directionality profiling.

Nucleic acids research : DOI : gkab219 Learn more
Summary

The replication strategy of metazoan genomes is still unclear, mainly because definitive maps of replication origins are missing. High-throughput methods are based on population average and thus may exclusively identify efficient initiation sites, whereas inefficient origins go undetected. Single-molecule analyses of specific loci can detect both common and rare initiation events along the targeted regions. However, these usually concentrate on positioning individual events, which only gives an overview of the replication dynamics. Here, we computed the replication fork directionality (RFD) profiles of two large genes in different transcriptional states in chicken DT40 cells, namely untranscribed and transcribed DMD and CCSER1 expressed at WT levels or overexpressed, by aggregating hundreds of oriented replication tracks detected on individual DNA fibres stretched by molecular combing. These profiles reconstituted RFD domains composed of zones of initiation flanking a zone of termination originally observed in mammalian genomes and were highly consistent with independent population-averaging profiles generated by Okazaki fragment sequencing. Importantly, we demonstrate that inefficient origins do not appear as detectable RFD shifts, explaining why dispersed initiation has remained invisible to population-based assays. Our method can both generate quantitative profiles and identify discrete events, thereby constituting a comprehensive approach to study metazoan genome replication.

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Dipti Vinayak Vernekar, Giordano Reginato, Céline Adam, Lepakshi Ranjha, Florent Dingli, Marie-Claude Marsolier, Damarys Loew, Raphaël Guérois, Bertrand Llorente, Petr Cejka, Valérie Borde (2021 Apr 6)

The Pif1 helicase is actively inhibited during meiotic recombination which restrains gene conversion tract length.

Nucleic acids research : DOI : gkab232 Learn more
Summary

Meiotic recombination ensures proper chromosome segregation to form viable gametes and results in gene conversions events between homologs. Conversion tracts are shorter in meiosis than in mitotically dividing cells. This results at least in part from the binding of a complex, containing the Mer3 helicase and the MutLβ heterodimer, to meiotic recombination intermediates. The molecular actors inhibited by this complex are elusive. The Pif1 DNA helicase is known to stimulate DNA polymerase delta (Pol δ) -mediated DNA synthesis from D-loops, allowing long synthesis required for break-induced replication. We show that Pif1 is also recruited genome wide to meiotic DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites. We further show that Pif1, through its interaction with PCNA, is required for the long gene conversions observed in the absence of MutLβ recruitment to recombination sites. In vivo, Mer3 interacts with the PCNA clamp loader RFC, and in vitro, Mer3-MutLβ ensemble inhibits Pif1-stimulated D-loop extension by Pol δ and RFC-PCNA. Mechanistically, our results suggest that Mer3-MutLβ may compete with Pif1 for binding to RFC-PCNA. Taken together, our data show that Pif1’s activity that promotes meiotic DNA repair synthesis is restrained by the Mer3-MutLβ ensemble which in turn prevents long gene conversion tracts and possibly associated mutagenesis.

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Yaqun Liu, Yea-Lih Lin, Philippe Pasero, Chun-Long Chen (2021 Feb 8)

Topoisomerase I prevents transcription-replication conflicts at transcription termination sites.

Molecular & cellular oncology : 1843951 : DOI : 10.1080/23723556.2020.1843951 Learn more
Summary

R-loops have both positive and negative impacts on chromosome functions. To identify toxic R-loops, we mapped RNA:DNA hybrids, markers of replication fork stalling and DNA double-strand breaks along the human genome. This analysis indicates that transient replication fork pausing occurs at the transcription termination sites of highly expressed genes enriched in R-loops and prevents head-on conflicts with transcription, in a topoisomerase I-dependent manner.

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Year of publication 2020

Aurore Sanchez, Céline Adam, Felix Rauh, Yann Duroc, Lepakshi Ranjha, Bérangère Lombard, Xiaojing Mu, Mélody Wintrebert, Damarys Loew, Alba Guarné, Stefano Gnan, Chun-Long Chen, Scott Keeney, Petr Cejka, Raphaël Guérois, Franz Klein, Jean-Baptiste Charbonnier, Valérie Borde (2020 Nov 17)

Exo1 recruits Cdc5 polo kinase to MutLγ to ensure efficient meiotic crossover formation.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America : DOI : 202013012 Learn more
Summary

Crossovers generated during the repair of programmed meiotic double-strand breaks must be tightly regulated to promote accurate homolog segregation without deleterious outcomes, such as aneuploidy. The Mlh1-Mlh3 (MutLγ) endonuclease complex is critical for crossover resolution, which involves mechanistically unclear interplay between MutLγ and Exo1 and polo kinase Cdc5. Using budding yeast to gain temporal and genetic traction on crossover regulation, we find that MutLγ constitutively interacts with Exo1. Upon commitment to crossover repair, MutLγ-Exo1 associate with recombination intermediates, followed by direct Cdc5 recruitment that triggers MutLγ crossover activity. We propose that Exo1 serves as a central coordinator in this molecular interplay, providing a defined order of interaction that prevents deleterious, premature activation of crossovers. MutLγ associates at a lower frequency near centromeres, indicating that spatial regulation across chromosomal regions reduces risky crossover events. Our data elucidate the temporal and spatial control surrounding a constitutive, potentially harmful, nuclease. We also reveal a critical, noncatalytic role for Exo1, through noncanonical interaction with polo kinase. These mechanisms regulating meiotic crossovers may be conserved across species.

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Pacôme Prompsy, Pia Kirchmeier, Justine Marsolier, Marc Deloger, Nicolas Servant, Céline Vallot (2020 Nov 12)

Interactive analysis of single-cell epigenomic landscapes with ChromSCape.

Nature communications : 5702 : DOI : 10.1038/s41467-020-19542-x Learn more
Summary

Chromatin modifications orchestrate the dynamic regulation of gene expression during development and in disease. Bulk approaches have characterized the wide repertoire of histone modifications across cell types, detailing their role in shaping cell identity. However, these population-based methods do not capture cell-to-cell heterogeneity of chromatin landscapes, limiting our appreciation of the role of chromatin in dynamic biological processes. Recent technological developments enable the mapping of histone marks at single-cell resolution, opening up perspectives to characterize the heterogeneity of chromatin marks in complex biological systems over time. Yet, existing tools used to analyze bulk histone modifications profiles are not fit for the low coverage and sparsity of single-cell epigenomic datasets. Here, we present ChromSCape, a user-friendly interactive Shiny/R application distributed as a Bioconductor package, that processes single-cell epigenomic data to assist the biological interpretation of chromatin landscapes within cell populations. ChromSCape analyses the distribution of repressive and active histone modifications as well as chromatin accessibility landscapes from single-cell datasets. Using ChromSCape, we deconvolve chromatin landscapes within the tumor micro-environment, identifying distinct H3K27me3 landscapes associated with cell identity and breast tumor subtype.

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Brison O., Gnan S., Azar D., Schmidt M., Koundrioukoff S., El-Hilali S., Jaszczyszyn Y., Lachages A.M., Thermes C., Chen C.L., Debatisse M. (2020 Nov 1)

Unscheduled origin building in S-phase upon tight CDK1 inhibition suppresses CFS instability

bioRxiv : 2020.11.19.390054 : DOI : 10.1101/2020.11.19.390054 Learn more
Summary

Genome integrity requires replication to be completed before chromosome segregation. This coordination essentially relies on replication-dependent activation of a dedicated checkpoint that inhibits CDK1, delaying mitotic onset. Under-replication of Common Fragile Sites (CFSs) however escapes surveillance, which triggers chromosome breakage. Using human cells, we asked here whether such leakage results from insufficient CDK1 inhibition under modest stresses used to destabilize CFSs. We found that tight CDK1 inhibition suppresses CFS instability. Repli-Seq and molecular combing analyses consistently showed a burst of replication initiations in mid S phase across large origin-poor domains shaped by transcription, including CFSs. Strikingly, CDC6 or CDT1 depletion or CDC7-DBF4 inhibition during the S phase prevented both extra-initiations and CFS rescue, showing that CDK1 inhibition promotes targeted and mistimed building of functional extra-origins. In addition to delay mitotic onset, checkpoint activation therefore advances replication completion of chromosome domains at risk of under-replication, two complementary roles preserving genome stability. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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Md Maminur Rahman, Mohiuddin Mohiuddin, Islam Shamima Keka, Kousei Yamada, Masataka Tsuda, Hiroyuki Sasanuma, Jessica Andreani, Raphael Guerois, Valérie Borde, Jean-Baptiste Charbonnier, Shunichi Takeda (2020 Oct 3)

Genetic Evidence for the Involvement of Mismatch Repair Proteins, PMS2 and MLH3, in a Late Step of Homologous Recombination.

The Journal of biological chemistry : DOI : jbc.RA120.013521 Learn more
Summary

Homologous recombination (HR) repairs DNA double-strand breaks using intact homologous sequences as template DNA. Broken DNA and intact homologous sequences form joint molecules (JMs), including Holliday junctions (HJs), as HR intermediates. HJs are resolved to form crossover and noncrossover products. A mismatch repair factor, MLH3 endonuclease produces the majority of crossovers during meiotic HR, but it remains elusive whether mismatch repair factors promote HR in non-meiotic cells. We disrupted genes encoding the MLH3 and PMS2 endonucleases in the human B cell line, TK6, generating null MLH3-/- and PMS2-/- mutant cells. We also inserted point mutations into the endonuclease motif of MLH3 and PMS2 genes, generating endonuclease death MLH3DN/DN and PMS2EK/EK cells. MLH3-/- and MLH3DN/DN cells showed a very similar phenotype, a 2.5 times decrease in the frequency of heteroallelic HR-dependent repair of a restriction-enzyme-induced double-strand breaks. PMS2-/- and PMS2EK/EK cells showed a phenotype very similar to that of the MLH3 mutants. These data indicate that MLH3 and PMS2 promote HR as an endonuclease. The MLH3DN/DN and PMS2EK/EK mutations had an additive effect on the heteroallelic HR. MLH3DN/DN/PMS2EK/EK cells showed normal kinetics of g-irradiation-induced Rad51 foci but a significant delay in the resolution of Rad51 foci and three times decrease in the number of cisplatin-induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE). The ectopic expression of the Gen1 HJ resolvase partially reversed the defective heteroallelic HR of MLH3DN/DN/PMS2EK/EK cells. Taken together, we propose that MLH3 and PMS2 promote HR as endonucleases, most likely by processing JMs in mammalian somatic cells.

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Ming-Jun Shi, Xiang-Yu Meng, Jacqueline Fontugne, Chun-Long Chen, François Radvanyi, Isabelle Bernard-Pierrot (2020 Sep 29)

Identification of new driver and passenger mutations within APOBEC-induced hotspot mutations in bladder cancer.

Genome medicine : 85 : DOI : 10.1186/s13073-020-00781-y Learn more
Summary

APOBEC-driven mutagenesis and functional positive selection of mutated genes may synergistically drive the higher frequency of some hotspot driver mutations compared to other mutations within the same gene, as we reported for FGFR3 S249C. Only a few APOBEC-associated driver hotspot mutations have been identified in bladder cancer (BCa). Here, we systematically looked for and characterised APOBEC-associated hotspots in BCa.

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Felix Raimundo, Celine Vallot, Jean-Philippe Vert (2020 Aug 25)

Tuning parameters of dimensionality reduction methods for single-cell RNA-seq analysis.

Genome biology : 212 : DOI : 10.1186/s13059-020-02128-7 Learn more
Summary

Many computational methods have been developed recently to analyze single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) data. Several benchmark studies have compared these methods on their ability for dimensionality reduction, clustering, or differential analysis, often relying on default parameters. Yet, given the biological diversity of scRNA-seq datasets, parameter tuning might be essential for the optimal usage of methods, and determining how to tune parameters remains an unmet need.

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Alexy Promonet, Ismaël Padioleau, Yaqun Liu, Lionel Sanz, Anna Biernacka, Anne-Lyne Schmitz, Magdalena Skrzypczak, Amélie Sarrazin, Clément Mettling, Maga Rowicka, Krzysztof Ginalski, Frédéric Chedin, Chun-Long Chen, Yea-Lih Lin, Philippe Pasero (2020 Aug 10)

Topoisomerase 1 prevents replication stress at R-loop-enriched transcription termination sites.

Nature communications : 3940 : DOI : 10.1038/s41467-020-17858-2 Learn more
Summary

R-loops have both positive and negative impacts on chromosome functions. To identify toxic R-loops in the human genome, here, we map RNA:DNA hybrids, replication stress markers and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cells depleted for Topoisomerase I (Top1), an enzyme that relaxes DNA supercoiling and prevents R-loop formation. RNA:DNA hybrids are found at both promoters (TSS) and terminators (TTS) of highly expressed genes. In contrast, the phosphorylation of RPA by ATR is only detected at TTS, which are preferentially replicated in a head-on orientation relative to the direction of transcription. In Top1-depleted cells, DSBs also accumulate at TTS, leading to persistent checkpoint activation, spreading of γ-H2AX on chromatin and global replication fork slowdown. These data indicate that fork pausing at the TTS of highly expressed genes containing R-loops prevents head-on conflicts between replication and transcription and maintains genome integrity in a Top1-dependent manner.

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